knowledge, middle

knowledge, middle
   God's middle knowledge is his knowledge of what agents would freely do if placed in certain circumstances. It is so-called because it comes logically in between God's natural knowledge (of absolute possibilities) and his free knowledge (of what will contingently happen because he so wills). Whether God has middle knowledge has always been hotly controversial; the first to suggest that he did was Pedro da Fonseca, though it was his disciple Luis de Molina that invented the phrase scientia media. In recent years Alvin Plantinga reinvented the doctrine of middle knowledge, and it is once again the focus of much disagreement. The importance of the doctrine, often called Molinism, is that it apparently offers hope of reconciling a strong view of divine providence with libertarianism concerning human freedom.
   Further reading: Dekker 2000; Flint 1998; Hasker, Basinger and Dekker 2000; Molina 1988; Plantinga 1974b

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

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